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Monday, 19 December 2011

Advantages & Disadvantages of Servo Motor

 Brush Servo Advantages:

Low Cost:

Brush servo motors are well developed an are inexpensive to produce.

Smooth rotation at low speeds:
Brush motors are available which are specially designed for low speed smoothness with a large number of commutator segments. Brushed motors are the smoothest of the three discussed motor technologies.

Low cost drive:
A DC brush drive can be made very economically since only a single bridge circuit is required.

No power used at standstill:
With no static loads on the motor, no current is required to hold position.

High peak torque available:
In intermittent duty applications, particularly when positioning mainly-inertial loads, the motor can be overdriven beyond its continuous rating.

 Flat speed-torque curve:
Gives optimum performance with easily generated linear acceleration ramps.

Wide variety of types available:
Brush motors are produced in many styles including very low inertia types for high dynamic applications.

High speed attainable:
Brush servos are typically good for speeds up to 5000 rpm.

Brush servo Disadvantages:

Brush Maintenance:
Not necessarily a problem if the motor is easily accessible, but a nuisance if the motor is not. Brushes also create dust as they wear; therefore limiting their use in clean rooms, and other environments where brush dust is not acceptable.

Problems in hazardous environments or a vacuum
Arcing at the brushes is fundamental to their operation.

Commutator limitations:
Arduous duty cycles promote wear, and the mechanical commutation limits top speed. Very short repetitive moves, less than one revolution of the motor, may wear part of the commutator.

Poor thermal performance:
All the heat is generated in the rotor, from which the thermal path to the outer casing is very inefficient.

Can be demagnetized:
Excessive current can result in partial demagnetization of the motor.

Increased Installed cost:
The installed cost of a servo system is higher than that of a stepper due to the requirement for feedback components.

Brushless servo benefits:

Maintenance free:
The lack of a commutator and brush system eliminates the need for periodic maintenance.

Good thermal performance:
All the heat is generated in the stator where it can be efficiently coupled to the outside casing.

Very high speeds possible:
There is no mechanical commutator to impose a speed limit, small motors are typically rated at up to 12,000 rpm.

Virtually no environment constraints:
Due to the absence of brush gear, a brushless servo can be used in almost any environment. For high temperature operation, the use of a resolver feedback avoids any electronics buried in the motor.

Brushless servo drawbacks:

Higher motor cost:
This is largely due to the use of rare earth magnets

Drive more complex and costly:
Six state, or trapezoidal drives, are not much more expensive than DC brush drives, but the higher performance sine wave drive can cost several times that of the DC brush drive.

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